To feed a current pulse with a sufficient magnitude (160 and 19 mA for samples on Si and PEN substrates, respectively), a trapezoidal voltage that was generated using a function generator (NF Corporation, WF1947) was amplified using a high-speed bipolar power supply (NF Corporation, HSA4014). A load resistor of 2.5 ohms was connected in series with the sample and used to calculate the current flowing through the circuit. The time-varying voltages at the load resistor and the sample voltage-probes were amplified using a differential amplifier (NF Corporation, 5307) and a low-noise preamplifier (NF Corporation, SA-410F3 or Stanford Research, SR560), respectively, and the amplified voltages were monitored using a digitizer (National Instruments, NI PXIe-5122) or an analog input module (National Instruments, NI 9239). Thus, we obtained the time profiles of the current and sample resistivity during the pulse application. A switch system (Keithley 7001 equipped with 7011S) was used to switch the circuit between the resistivity-measurement and pulse-application setups.

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