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The human postmortem brain tissue obtained from the Neurological Foundation of New Zealand Human Brain Bank at the University of Auckland was donated to the Brain Bank with family consent, and its use for this study was approved by the University of Auckland Human Participants Ethics Committee. The control cases had no history of neurological abnormalities, and cause of death was unrelated to any neurological condition. Independent pathological analysis confirmed that any amyloid pathology was deemed normal for age in the control cases selected for this study. Pathological analysis was carried out on all AD cases used in this study to determine pathological diagnosis and to assign pathological grades, which, together with a history of dementia, confirmed the diagnosis (tables S1 and S2).

Postmortem tissue samples collected under institutional review board (IRB)–approved protocols were obtained from the University of California Davis Alzheimer’s Disease Center, the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Neurosurgery Tissue Bank, ProteoGenex (Culver City, CA), and PrecisionMed (Solana Beach, CA). Gingival tissue samples were collected from human volunteers with chronic periodontal disease who provided signed informed consent after the nature and possible consequences of the studies were explained under a University of California at San Francisco IRB–approved protocol (approval no. 11-05608). CSF and saliva samples were collected from human volunteers with a diagnosis of probable AD who provided signed informed consent after the nature and possible consequences of the studies were explained under an IRB-approved protocol obtained from PrecisionMed (Solana Beach, CA). Oral plaque and saliva samples were collected from human volunteers with chronic periodontal disease who provided signed informed consent after the nature and possible consequences of the studies were explained under an IRB-approved protocol obtained from the Forsyth Institute (Cambridge, MA).

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