We used a bed topography from mass conservation (16) that combines ice thickness derived from an airborne radar depth sounder (22) with InSAR-derived ice velocity maps (29) and RACMO2.3 surface mass balance data (20). Combined analysis of DInSAR data and bed elevation allowed us to interpret grounding line migration. The TEIS grounding zone is located inland of a set of topographic bumps, on a reverse slope of about 3%, i.e., leaving no resistance for future retreat. Bed elevation, hb, was combined with surface elevation above mean sea level, h, to deduce ice thickness, H = hhb, and calculate a height above flotation, hf, asEmbedded Image(1)where ρi is the density of ice (917 kg/m3) and ρw is the density of seawater (1028 kg/m3). The relative error in hf is 14 m based on an uncertainty of 2 m for h, 100 m in H, 0.6% in water density, and 1% in ice density (Fig. 1E). Movie S2 shows a time series of hf on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

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