The micro-Raman mapping was carried out using a confocal microscope (inVia, Renishaw) equipped with a 532-nm laser excitation source. The laser, attenuated to about 0.5 mW, was focused on the sample surface with a ×50 objective lens with an NA of 0.75. The Raman signals from the sample were introduced to an electron-multiplying CCD detector (Andor) through a grating with 1800 grooves per millimeter. The step size of the measurements in Fig. 5 (A to C) was 0.7 μm and 0.6 μm in Fig. 5D. The CCD integration time was 0.5 s for all measurements. The Raman spectra were fitted using a Voigt function, and the Raman images were obtained by plotting the peak intensities of the fitting results.

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