KL analysis was performed by the two-stage sulfuric acid hydrolysis following the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s standard protocol (42). Briefly, 0.3 g of biomass (weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg) was treated in 72% (w/w) H2SO4 at room temperature for 60 min. The slurry was diluted to 4% (w/w) H2SO4 and autoclaved at 121°C for 60 min. After filtration, the acid-insoluble lignin (AIL = KL) and the acid-soluble lignin were quantitated gravimetrically and spectrophotometrically, respectively (table S1). Monosaccharides in the KL filtrates (hydrolysates) were quantitated using high-performance ion-chromatography on a Dionex ICS-3000 system equipped with an integrated amperometric detector and a CarboPac PA1 column (4 × 250 mm) at 30°C. DI water was used as an eluent at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min according to the following gradient: 0 to 25 min, 100% water; 25.1 to 35 min, 30% water and 70% 0.1 M NaOH; and 35.1 to 42 min, 100% water. The post-run eluent of 0.5 M NaOH at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min was used to purge remaining materials from the column to ensure baseline stability and detector sensitivity (23). Crude protein content was determined from the nitrogen (N) content using a 6.25 N-to-protein factor (table S1). The total N was determined using an elemental combustion system (model 4010, Costech Analytical Technologies). Samples (approximately 10 mg) were accurately weighed into tin combustion cups using a microbalance. After complete combustion, total N was measured as N2 gas. The compositional analysis results are shown in table S1.

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