Nerve transfers were performed as previously described (Fig. 1A) (31). In brief, an incision was made on the upper extremity from the pectoral muscle to the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Using a surgical microscope, the ulnar nerve was exposed and cut proximal to the medial epicondyle. First, the biceps’ lateral head was denervated by resection of the motor branch to prevent any aberrant regenerative interaction. The ulnar nerve was neurotized to the epimysium of the motor branch’s insertion point via two 11-0 (Ethilon, Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson Medical Care) sutures. Using this neurotization technique, the regeneration distance and, thus, the effect of denervation were kept to a minimum.

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