We focused our analysis on species that are listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, and Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List. Specifically, we selected species that the IUCN have coded as threatened by biological resource use (hunting and trapping terrestrial animals, gathering terrestrial plants, logging and wood harvesting, and fishing and harvesting aquatic resources for intentional use and motivation unknown or unrecorded) in 2016 (www.iucnredlist.org/resources/threat-classification-scheme). We only selected species from those species groups on the IUCN Red List that have received comprehensive assessment, namely, birds, mammals, amphibians, chameleons, sharks and rays, tarpons and ladyfishes, parrotfishes and surgeon fishes, groupers, tunas and billfishes, hagfishes, angelfishes, blennies, butterfly fishes, picarels, porgies, puffer fishes, sea breams, sturgeon, wrasses, reef-building corals, freshwater caridean shrimps, cone snails, freshwater crabs, freshwater crayfish, lobsters, cacti, sea grasses, and mangroves (16). In addition, we only used species for which range maps were available or about to become available from the IUCN Red List portal (www.iucnredlist.org/) and from the BirdLife International Data Zone webpage (www.birdlife.org/datazone/home). This resulted in a total of 4543 species belonging to eight broad taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, cartilaginous fishes, bony fishes, invertebrates, and plants) in terrestrial and freshwater and marine systems. For birds, we split up the original range maps to consider the breeding, nonbreeding, passage, and resident ranges of each species. This resulted in a total of 4765 range maps included in the analysis in representation of 4543 species. For all species, we excluded all portions of the ranges where the species were identified as extinct, introduced, or of uncertain origin. In addition, we further considered 579 Data Deficient species, which are coded as threatened by unsustainable harvesting in the IUCN Red List, from the same range of taxonomic groups. We did this to generate a measure of uncertainty for the average range coverage of data sufficient species in additional analyses, as we explain below. Hence, Data Deficient species were not included in spatial conservation planning. Overall, a total of 5344 range maps (4765 for threatened and Near Threatened species and 579 for Data Deficient species) were processed.

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