The collection of human epileptic brain tissue was previously described (47). Briefly, 20 neocortical tissues from pharmacoresistant TLE patients and 10 histological normal neocortical tissues from head trauma patients were surgically obtained from The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. This process was in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Ethics Committee of The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Before surgery, a written informed consent form was signed by the patients or their lineal relatives. All TLE patients received optimal medical treatment with three or more first-line AEDs without good seizure control. Before surgery, all patients underwent a comprehensive presurgical assessment, including an elaborate history and neurological examination, electroencephalogram studies, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging studies. Table S1 summarizes the clinical features of the TLE patients (7 males and 13 females; mean age, 22.5 ± 1.7 years; range, 9 to 39 years; epilepsy course, 9.5 ± 0.9 years). For controls, 10 histologically normal neocortical tissues were obtained from patients who were treated for increased intracranial pressure due to head trauma. No patients exhibited signs of central nervous system disease, and no patients had received AEDs before head trauma. The control patients did not undergo early seizure after head trauma. Before surgery, all patients underwent a comprehensive presurgical assessment, including an elaborate history, a neurological examination, and neuroimaging studies. Temporal neocortex tissues were taken from these patients only for decompression treatment purposes. Brain tissues that were relatively normal upon pathological examination were used as control human tissues. Table S2 summarizes the clinical features of the TBI patients (six males and four females; mean age, 23.4 ± 3.7 years; range, 8 to 40 years; Glasgow Coma Scale, 6.7 ± 0.40; time to surgical intervention, 16.4 ± 1.10 hours). No significant differences in age and sex were detected between the TLE patients and the control group (P >0.05).

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