The chronic mouse model of spontaneous seizures induced by intrahippocampal administration of KA has been extensively described (18, 40). Mice were anesthetized and mounted on a stereotaxic apparatus (RWD Life Science Co. Ltd., Shenzhen, China). Using a 0.5-μl syringe (Hamilton, Reno, NV), 1.0 nmol of KA (Sigma-Aldrich Co., St. Louis, USA) in 50 nl of saline was injected into the right hippocampus [anteroposterior (AP), −1.6 mm; mediolateral (ML), −1.5 mm; dorsoventral (DV), −1.5 mm] over 3 min (40). The syringe was maintained in situ for an additional 5 min to minimize reflux along the injection trace. For intracerebroventricular injection of reagents, a guide cannula (0.64 mm outer diameter and 0.35 mm inner diameter; RWD Life Science Co. Ltd., Shenzhen, China) was implanted into the lateral ventricle (AP, 0.5 mm; ML, 1.0 mm; DV, 2.3 mm). For LFP recording, two stainless steel screws were implanted in the anterior cranium as ground screws, and a platinum-iridium alloy microwire (25 μm in diameter; Plexon, Hong Kong) was implanted into the right dorsal hippocampus (AP, 1.6 mm; ML, 1.6 mm; DV, 1.5 mm). The guide cannula, the microwire, and a U-shaped frame for holding the head were cemented to the skull.

Two hours after KA injection, nonconvulsive SE was terminated using diazepam. Three days after SE induction, the mice began receiving daily intracerebroventricular injections of GW9508 (1 μg per mouse; Selleck Chemicals), GW1100 (5 μg per mouse; Millipore), or vehicle (0.5% DMSO) for seven consecutive days through the implanted guide cannula. The doses were based on previous studies (12, 41).

One month after SE induction, the LFP recording was performed for 2 hours as previously described (40). Briefly, the head of the awake mouse was fixed to minimize behavioral state–induced LFPs changes. LFPs were recorded using an MAP data acquisition system (Plexon, Dallas, TX). The signals were filtered (0.1 to 500 Hz), preamplified (1000×), and digitized at 4 kHz.

The LFPs data were inspected using NeuroExplorer (Nex Technologies, Littleton, MA). A cluster of spontaneous paroxysmal discharges with a high-amplitude spike activity above 2 SDs from the baseline and a frequency above 1 Hz was defined as an SLE if it lasted for 5 s or more. SLEs were also confirmed by spectrogram analysis.

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