A measurement cell, fabricated using a polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (Sylgard 184, Dow Corning), consisted of source and drain reservoirs (15 ml) that were 30 mm in diameter with a 10-mm-length gap between them (fig. S14A). The two reservoirs were filled with KCl solution (99.5%, Sigma-Aldrich) at the same concentration (1 M to 1 μM). As shown in fig. S14B, a GO gel fiber was bridged between the two reservoirs after removing the preexisting ions (e.g., Ca2+ and NH4+) and then exchanging them for K+ ions in the following three steps: GO gel fibers were washed with excess DIW, dried in an 80°C oven for 30 min, and rehydrated for at least 24 hours in the target KCl solution. The removal and exchange of ions in the GO gel fiber were confirmed by XPS analysis (fig. S15). Last, the two reservoirs were connected to a potentiostat (SP-200, Bio-Logic) using two Ag/AgCl electrodes (fig. S14, C and D). LSV in the potential range of −0.4 to 0.4 V and EIS in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 7 MHz were collected using the potentiostat in a custom-made faraday cage. The ionic conductivity of the bulk electrolyte solution was measured using a glass tube with a diameter of 475 μm and a length of 10 mm.

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