A 0.5 wt % GO dispersion was loaded into a syringe with a single nozzle (inner diameter, 400 μm). In a typical spinning process, the GOLC dispersion was ejected into a coagulation bath containing 5 wt % CaCl2 solution with 0.25 M NH4OH (30% NH3 solution, Sigma-Aldrich) at a constant rate (v1) of 17 mm s−1. The coagulated gel fiber was drawn at a constant rate (v2) by controlling the revolutions per minute of a take-up roller. v2 was set to 68 mm s−1 for obtaining 4v1-GO gel fibers. v1-GO gel fibers mean that the fibers are assembled by only the injection force of GO dispersion without the aid of the roller. For this, we set v2 (i.e., linear velocity of roller) to v1. After washing in DIW bath, the gel fibers were collected on a bobbin. For SEM, gel fibers were freeze-dried using a lyophilizer (FDB-5503, Operon) after quickly quenching them with liquid nitrogen.

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