The sulfonated polymers were dissolved in dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The membrane was prepared by pouring sulfonated copolymer solutions onto a leveled clean glass plates after filtration. The removal of DMAc was accomplished by drying at 60°C for 15 hours and under vacuum at 120°C for 15 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the PES-Py solution in CHCl3 was spin-coated on the as-prepared membrane, dried at 45°C in a vacuum oven for 12 hours, and peeled off. The copolymer self-assembled into the 3D porous membrane via micro-/nanophase separation. The membrane thickness can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of the polymer.

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