Biofouling dynamics of P. stewartii in the presence of the engineered QQ biofilm

The biofilms of E. coli/(pYYDT-RB + pAiiO) and E. coli/(pYYDT-RB + pmAiiO) were grown on the FO membranes for 24 hours in the dark. After 24 hours, fresh feed solution was inoculated with an overnight P. stewartii culture to a final OD600 of ~0.1 and monitored for 96 hours. Biofilm formation by P. stewartii was compared for membranes without the preformed E. coli biofilms. To regulate the QQ biofilm formation, the biofilms on FO membranes were subjected to sequential irradiation by NIR light and blue light, as described above. Biofilms were visualized every 24 hours using CLSM, and the permeate flux was recorded during the entire biofouling experiment.

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