The biofilm assay was conducted on the basis of a 24-well plate method with slight modifications (24). Diluted overnight cultures of E. coli/pYYDT and E. coli/pYYDT-RB, at a final turbidity of OD600 (optical density at 600 nm) ~ 0.1, were inoculated into 24-well plates with modified M9 minimal media. The cultures were incubated for 24 hours at 25°C without shaking in the dark or irradiated with NIR light or blue light. After the crystal violet was added to each well, the wells were rinsed and dried, and then ethanol was added to dissolve the crystal violet. The total biofilm formation was measured at 550 nm. At least nine independent replicates were used for each strain.

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