To examine the synthesis of curli fimbriae as a proxy for the c-di-GMP level, strains were grown on LB agar media supplemented with Congo red (50 μg/ml) at 25°C for 24 hours and incubated in the dark or irradiated with NIR light (660 nm, 5.3 mW cm−2) or blue light (465 nm, 5.3 mW cm−2; pulses of 15 s light and 60 s dark) (20).

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