Seventeen adult male OF1 mice were used for the experiments. Mice were entrained to a 12-hour/12-hour light/dark cycle with food and water available ad libitum. All experimental procedures were performed according to the ethical guidelines of the Institut de Neuroscience des Systèmes and approved by the local Ethical Committees and Veterinary Offices. Surgeries and experiments were done under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia (ketamine, 100 mg/kg; xylazine, 10 mg/kg body weight). Mice were fixed in a mouse stereotaxic frame (Kopf Instruments). After a subcutaneous injection of the local painkiller ropivacaine, craniotomy was made from bregma (anteroposterior, 1.0 mm; mediolateral, 1.2 mm; dorsoventral, 2.8 mm from the surface). Skull was opened; dura was removed; and silicon probe (NeuroNexus), μFIP probe, and a Hamilton syringe for 4AP injection with a borosilicate glass capillary (inside diameter, 0.86 mm; outside diameter, 1.5 mm) were lowered into the hippocampus. Capillary was pulled with a pipette puller (P-1000, Sutter Instrument). The tip of the capillary was between 50 and 100 μm. Recordings were made with a 64-channel Neuralynx amplifier.

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