The microfluidic channel was filled with a GABA source solution (0.05 M in DI water), and the probe shank was placed into 500 μl of ACSF solution with a PEDOT:PSS-coated headscrew. One-volt pulses were applied between the source and target electrodes (100 s on, 1 s off), while the current was measured. The target solution was then collected, and the concentration of GABA was measured using a GABA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (ImmuSmol) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For the diffusion measurements, we first ensured that the ion bridge was already filled with ions by running the devices at 1 V for 100 s. We then changed the target solution and started the diffusion measurements. Diffusion time points less than 20 min were estimated on the basis of a linear extrapolation to time zero. Both active pumping and diffusion data points represent the average of at least three samples.

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