Gingival emergence of M1 was estimated by subtracting the approximate time between gingival emergence and full eruption from the age-at-death because the tooth had only just come into occlusion. In modern humans, the time between gingival emergence and the end of eruption is between 4 and 5 months; in chimpanzees, it is closer to 4 months (20). Thus, the age of gingival emergence of the Xujiayao M1 can be estimated by subtracting the eruption time from its age-at-death.

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