Fabrication of silicon nanowires
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Visible light–gated reconfigurable rotary actuation of electric nanomotors
Sci Adv, Sep 14, 2018; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau0981

The silicon nanowires used in this work were fabricated via two similar methods depending on the diameter. For nanowires with a diameter of greater than 100 nm, nanosphere lithography masked MACE was used (26). First, all silicon wafers of various doping density from intrinsic (>5000 ohm·cm) to highly doped (0.001 to 0.005 ohm·cm) were rinsed and sonicated in acetone, isopropanol (IPA), and DI water each for 5 min sequentially. After drying in nitrogen gas flow, the wafers were immersed in poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) [2 weight % (wt %)], poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (2 wt %), and aluminum chlorohydrate (5 wt %) each for 30 s that the surface can be modified with positive/negative/positive charge layers. Next, after immersing the wafer into a polystyrene (PS) sphere suspension for 2 min, a monodispersed layer of negatively charged PS nanospheres was formed on the wafer. Subsequently, a reactive ion etching process was carried out to slightly reduce the size of PS spheres and to remove the charged polyelectrolyte layers. Then, a thin silver film of 50 nm in thickness was deposited on the wafer by electron-beam evaporation. Next, we sonicated the wafer in toluene to remove the PS spheres, leaving arrays of nanoholes on the silver film. The etching was conducted in the mixture of 4.7 M HF and 0.3 M H2O2. Finally, silver was removed by nitric acid, and nanowires were sonicated off the wafer in DI water. For nanowires with a diameter of less than 100 nm, one step synthesis was adopted by directly immersing the cleaned wafer into the mixture of 4.7 M HF and 0.02 M AgNO3 (28). After the etching, we treated the wafer with nitric acid to remove the silver dendrite and then sonicated nanowires off the wafer in DI water.

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