Because of the limitations of conventional methods of measuring the thickness of thin films, an indirect method based on Beer’s law was used. It was shown (20) that the relationship between MXene sprayed film absorption and thickness is linear. Having the relationship between thickness and absorption, one can calculate the thickness. We have measured UV-vis absorption spectra of our films (fig. S3). A blank PET sheet was used as a reference. For thicknesses of the sprayed opaque films, the thickness was calculated by measuring the sheet resistance of the sprayed films and comparing it to the sheet resistance of the freestanding film of known thickness.

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