A smooth PET sheet (TruLam, thickness 4 mil, 100 μm) was used as a substrate for spraying due to their transparency and flexibility. Before deposition, PET substrates were cleaned by sonication in 5% Hellmanex III (Sigma-Aldrich) detergent solution for 3 min, followed by sonication in DI water and 190-proof ethanol. Sonication in all cases was limited to 3 min. After drying with compressed air, substrates were cleaned with oxygen plasma to remove residual contamination and make the surface more hydrophilic. Plasma cleaning (Tergeo Plus Plasma Cleaner, PIE Scientific) was done with 4 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) O2 gas flow, 50 W for 5 min. The chamber was purged with Ar gas after. PET surface was not ideally smooth, as can be seen from the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image in fig. S1. The roughness of cleaned PET reached 23 nm, which could be an obstacle for deposition of very thin MXene films. Ti3C2 dispersion in water was loaded into a spray gun. Constant flow of air from a hot gun above the PET substrate provided sufficiently fast drying, making the process easy, fast, and straightforward.

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