The material used in this study was synthesized by selective etching of Al atomic layers from Ti3AlC2. One gram of Ti3AlC2 powder (particle size, <44 μm; Carbon-Ukraine) was gradually added to a 10 mL solution of 6 ml of 12 M hydrochloric acid, 3 ml of 49% hydrofluoric acid (Sigma-Aldrich), and 1 ml of deionized water (23). The mixture was kept in an ice bath for 10 min and then stirred for 24 hours at room temperature. After etching, the mixture was washed five times by centrifugation in two 150-ml plastic centrifuge tubes at 3500 rpm for 2 min until the pH of the supernatant reached 7 to 6. After that, the sediment was added to a cold 20% solution of lithium chloride (LiCl) in water. The mixture was dispersed by manual shaking, stirred in an ice bath for 10 min, and then stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. After that, MXene was washed three times until the supernatant becomes dark, which is an indication of the beginning of delamination. The unreacted Ti3AlC2 and large multilayered Ti3C2 particles were separated by centrifugation at 3500 rpm for 1 min, and the collected supernatant was used for spraying. Ti2C and Mo2TiC2 films were made as described elsewhere (22).

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