Skeletons from 6 of the 11 Isle Royale wolves included in this study were retrieved from storage at Michigan Technological University, photographed, and assessed for morphological anomalies as described previously (7, 8). Skeletons were obtained from carcasses collected post-mortem. The vertebral column and rib variations were evaluated. In some cases, specimens were missing a few vertebrae or ribs; the list of examined wolves is noted in Table 1. A litter of eight newborn pups from F75 was also examined through radiographic analysis.

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