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Video recordings of class meetings were also collected from the same eight courses during years 1 and 3. The recordings focused on the instructors and any materials they were presenting such as board work and slide presentations, not on the students. We recorded 65 (80%) of the 81 unique course sections offered (Table 2); that is, when an instructor taught multiple sections of the same course in the same semester, we attempted to record only one of their sections. Three recordings of class meetings were collected from each unique course section approximately 1, 2, and 3 months into the semester. We note that, for 9 of the 65 course sections, we were able to collect only two recordings and, for 1 section, we could collect only one recording. These missing recordings occurred for various unsystematic reasons including equipment failure and last-minute schedule changes, and they are spread roughly evenly across the biology and physics courses, whereas the chemistry video data are complete.

A detailed summary by course is provided in table S3.

The recordings were coded using an observation protocol developed for this project (37) that attends to the teaching activities in each class meeting (descriptions of the teaching activities and how the videos were processed are provided in the supplementary materials). Two-thirds of the year 1 recordings were coded initially, and the remaining third was mixed and coded with the year 3 recordings (in this second set, coders did not know the year of the recording). Although students and instructors engaged in many different activities during any particular class meeting, here, we report only the percent of time spent lecturing, defined as instructor-directed presentation of content-related information. Most of the other teaching activities refer to an active learning activity, such as the use of audience response systems (e.g., clicker questions) and in-class tasks (e.g., think-pair-share questions).

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