Mice were lightly anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane. Cardiac contractile function and structure were evaluated by M-mode echocardiography at different time points by using a 30-MHz probe (Vevo 770 System, VisualSonics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). The left ventricular ejection fraction (EF%) and fractional shortening (FS%) were calculated as described (45).

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