Mice were lightly anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane. Cardiac contractile function and structure were evaluated by M-mode echocardiography at different time points by using a 30-MHz probe (Vevo 770 System, VisualSonics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). The left ventricular ejection fraction (EF%) and fractional shortening (FS%) were calculated as described (45).

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.

Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.