The tailored pulses were focused into cells in the microfluidic channel by an achromatic lens (AC050-008-B, Thorlabs). The input power was in the range of 100 to 300 mW, depending on the sample. The pump pulse excited the molecular vibrations via impulsive SRS while the probe pulse generated anti-Stokes scattering. The blue-shifted scattered photons were filtered with an optical short-pass filter with a cutoff wavelength of 750 nm (FESH0750, Thorlabs) and detected by an avalanche photodetector (APD120A, Thorlabs). To minimize the influence of the pump pulse on the FT-CARS signal and hence to reduce the noise level, a polarizer was placed in parallel to the polarization of the probe pulse before the avalanche photodetector. The intensity-modulated CARS signal generated by a series of pulse pairs with the sequentially scanned time delay was digitized by a high-speed digitizer (ATS9440, AlazarTech) at a rate of 100 megasamples/s. The digitized temporal waveform is segmented into a series of single-scan interferograms and digitally Fourier transformed via fast Fourier transformation. Resultant data are sequential broadband CARS spectra.

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