The SEM images were taken in two systems: FEI Helios Dual Beam (2 kV, 100 nA) and Hitachi Nova (5 kV, 10 μA). Raman spectroscopy was performed on NT-MDT Integra (473-nm laser, beam intensity of 0.5 mW cm−2). Typical Raman peaks are the D band around 1350 cm−1, indicative of defects in the crystal lattice, the G band around 1585 cm−1, corresponding to the graphitic signature of sp2 hybridization, and the 2D band around 2730 cm−1, arising from a second-order two-phonon process. The presence of a D′ peak evolving at 1620 cm−1 indicates further degradation of the graphene lattice. Raman spectroscopy of the graphene was performed before transfer to the PCTE support.

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