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Measurements were performed using linearly polarized undulator radiation from the UE112 beamline and hemispherical analyzers of three experimental stations at BESSY II: “ARPES 12” station equipped with a Scienta R8000 analyzer for initial high-resolution studies (T = 60 K), “ARPES 13” station with a Scienta R4000 analyzer for high-resolution low-temperature studies (T = 1 K), and PHOENEXS station for room temperature core-level studies. Graphene on nitrogen-doped 6H-SiC(0001) was produced as described in (38). The substrate was etched in molecular hydrogen at a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 1425°C to remove polishing damage. Then, graphene was grown by annealing the sample in 1 bar of argon at a temperature of 1675°C. The sample was transferred in air into the photoemission station and subsequently annealed. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoemission electron microscopy, and ARPES from this sample showed that it is mostly one MLG with 20% contribution of BLG. After the initial study, the sample was stored in air, annealed at 250°C for 20 min, and studied again. The sample quality was the same without any significant changes in LEED, XPS, and ARPES. Subsequently, the sample was annealed several times in ultrahigh vacuum with increased temperatures in the range of 1300° to 1400°C, until parts of the surface appeared with mostly BLG. At all stages, ARPES and LEED measurements were conducted for control of the sample quality and the graphene layer thickness. All results shown here were from the same sample, and the same results were obtained from other samples grown at other times, which only differ in the bilayer/monolayer ratio.

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