The HIN temperature (TH) and freezing delay time (tD) were investigated using an optical microscope coupled with a high-speed camera (Phantom v7.3) when all the samples were placed inside a closed cell atop a cryo-stage (Linkam THMS600). The temperature resolution is 0.1°C, and the time resolution is 1.0 ms, i.e., 1000 frames/s, respectively. tD of ice nucleation, which is defined as the time interval between the time when the surface reached an object temperature and that when the freezing happened, was measured at different supercoolings in sealed cells with a relative humidity of 100% (6). All the results of TH and tD are the mean of more than 200 independent freezing events for each PVA surface, and the error bars are the SEM. The distribution of TH was also consolidated by Student’s t test when appropriate.

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