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We processed and integrated the onshore data covering the same period as the offshore data acquisitions to compare the results and extend the information about the deformation measured by the seafloor network. GPS data collected during the first week of April 2016 and the last week of July 2017 were processed separately by using the usual approach adopted for geodetic surveys (38) to obtain the most precise coordinates of each station at the two periods. Thus, the 3D displacements at the GPS stations from April 2016 to July 2017 were obtained by comparing the two sets of coordinates.

The Sentinel-1A ascending (31 March 2016 and 30 July 2017) and descending (6 April 2016 and 30 July 2017) data were processed by GAMMA software, using the so-called two-pass interferometry (39) to generate the interferometric products. A spectral diversity method was used to coregister the Sentinel-1 pairs to obtain an extremely high precision (<0.01 pixel). The result of this processing is the ground displacement along the Line Of Sight (LOS) across the entire area. To derive the 3D surface motion maps, we integrated GPS and DInSAR displacements by applying the SISTEM method (28). A linear matrix equation accounts for both GPS and DInSAR data, the solution of which provides the strain tensor, the displacement field, and the rigid body rotation tensor throughout the entire investigated area.

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