Physical models at 1× scale were suspended in a flume, similar to dye injection experiments. Particles (hydrated Artemia sp. cysts) were released upstream and imaged passing over the filter (resolution, 1280 × 1024 pixels; 240 fps; Edgertronic camera, Sanstreak Corp). To accurately follow these small particles, it was necessary to decrease the flow velocity (180 mm/s), so the Reynolds number was decreased to Re = 309. Dye injection experiments were used to confirm that the flow patterns around the filter were qualitatively similar to that at higher flow velocities. In addition, CFD simulations were performed mirroring this freestream velocity (180 mm/s) and freestream to transverse velocity ratio (wing, 8.5:1 at 12 Pa; spoiler, 8.3:1 at 18 Pa), and predicted particle trajectories and filtration efficiencies were similar to those at higher freestream velocities (for 300-μm neutrally buoyant particles: wing, 17%; spoiler, 54%). The trajectories of particles that interacted with the physical model were recorded using ImageJ software. The trajectories were shifted to a common origin using the first filter lobe that the particle interacted with as a reference point. Vertical velocity as a function of position was then calculated by fitting the positional data to a smoothing spline and taking the derivative (MATLAB, MathWorks Inc).

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