Dye injection flow visualization
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Manta rays feed using ricochet separation, a novel nonclogging filtration mechanism
Sci Adv, Sep 26, 2018; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat9533

Physical models at 4× scale were suspended in the center of the working section of a recirculating flume (Research Water Tunnel Model 1520, Rolling Hills Research Corporation). Blue dye (ESCO Foods, Deep Blue Shade) was released upstream of the filter models and imaged passing over the model [resolution, 4000 × 3000 pixels; 60 frames per second (fps); Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ300]. The freestream flow velocity was adjusted so that the Reynolds number in the flume (Re = 745) approximately matched the filtration efficiency experiments. The physical model was angled relative to the freestream (~20° angle of attack) until the ratio of freestream to transverse velocity also matched the filtration efficiency experiments (10:1). This ratio was measured by recording the angle at which the dye stream approached the filter array [θ = arctan(ut/uf) = 6°].

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