Raman spectra for several samples are shown in fig. S10. The low-frequency (<100 cm−1) Raman spectra were obtained with a Horiba Jobin-Yvon T64000 triple-grating Raman spectrometer under a Embedded Image backscattering configuration. The excitation laser was a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 532.1 nm, and the power incident on the sample was 7.2 mW. The acquisition time was 60 s to ensure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. A 100× objective lens with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.95, a motorized XYZ stage, and three 1800 grooves/mm grating were used. Both Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman lines were collected and were used to improve the measurements of Raman shifts. In contrast to the low-frequency measurement, high-frequency (>100 cm−1) spectra were measured with a Horiba Jobin-Yvon HR800 Raman spectrometer using an objective lens with an NA of 0.90, an incident excitation laser power on the sample of 1.2 mW, and a shorter accumulation time of 15 s. The other measurement configurations were the same.

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