The cross-sectional TEM samples for strain mapping studies were prepared using the focused ion beam technique with additional ion milling process. To realize high-resolution TEM-based strain mapping, the 300-period SLs were thinned both bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom to make the bottom region and the top region comparable. HRTEM images were acquired using the high-angle annular dark-field detector on a double aberration correction JEOL ARM-200CF at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The strain maps were retrieved using geometric phase analysis from HRTEM images by selecting substrate areas as a reference (41, 42).

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