All animal work was compliant with the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at North Carolina State University. Acute MI was induced in female Yorkshire pigs (20 to 30 kg) by permanent ligation of LAD during an open-chest surgery (52). Twenty minutes after ischemia, a 2.5-cm by 2.5-cm MN-CSC cardiac patch was placed on the heart to cover the MI-injured area that is downstream of LAD (Silkam 2/0, B. Braun Suture). The control animals received no cardiac patches. After the procedures, all animals were closely monitored by university veterinary services staff, and then the pigs were euthanized 48 hours after MI injury. LVEFs were determined by echocardiography using a Philips CX30 ultrasound system, coupled with an S4-2 high-frequency probe at two time points (4 and 48 hours after MI). Blood was collected before MI and 24 and 48 hours after MI. Infarct area of LV myocardium was traced through the digital images of TTC staining (five slices) and measured by ImageJ analysis. Then, the infarct ratio was measured and calculated as Embedded Image.

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