All animal work was compliant with the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at North Carolina State University. Briefly, rats were anesthetized with ketamine. Immediately after MI induction (49), animals were randomized to receive one of the following two treatments: (i) MI + No–MN-CSC group: a PVA patch without MNs containing 1 × 106 CSCs was placed onto the infarcted heart; (ii) MI + MN-CSC group: a MN-CSC patch containing 1 × 106 CSCs was placed onto the infarcted heart. Serum ALT, AST, creatinine, and BUN levels were measured 21 days after transplantation. Normal range for rats is as follows: ALT, 10 to 40 IU/liter; AST, 50 to 150 IU/liter (50); creatinine, 0.1 to 0.55 mg/dl; BUN, 3.56 to 25.43 mg/dl (51).

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