The SHG cavity is a free-space bow-tie configuration using a PPKTP nonlinear crystal. The cavity consisted of two high-reflectivity (HR) concave mirrors at 1550 nm with a radius of curvature = 50 mm and two plane mirrors. The first plane mirror, input coupler (IC), was a partially reflecting mirror at 1550 nm, and the second was an HR steering mirror attached to a piezo actuator. The cavity was locked on resonance using Pound-Drever-Hall technique. All mirrors were AR coated at the SHG wavelength. The cavity formed a beam waist of radius of approximately 27 μm between the two concave mirrors, where a 15-mm-long PPKTP crystal was aligned. This configuration maximized the nonlinear conversion as detailed by the Boyd-Kleinman theory. The PPKTP crystal was housed in an oven and temperature stabilized around the optimum phase-matching temperature of 40°C using a Peltier element. Both faces of the crystal were wedged and AR coated at both wavelengths to minimize an intracavity parasitic interference. One watt of fundamental optical power was injected through IC into the cavity and converted into the SHG wavelength with 80% efficiency. The SHG field exited the system through one of the concave mirrors and was subsequently coupled into an optical fiber.

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