The silicon nanowire transistor used in this work was fabricated using a standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, similar to previously reported devices (21, 24). The channel, defined by the top gate, is 11 nm high, 42 nm wide, and 54 nm long. On both sides of this gate, 25-nm-long Si3N4 spacers form barriers to the highly doped source and drain regions. With a background boron doping of 5 × 1017 cm−3 in the silicon channel, about 10 boron atoms are expected under the gate and about 10 are expected under the spacers.

In a dilution refrigerator at a base temperature of 40 mK, hole transport and RF gate reflectometry measurements give complementary insights into the static and dynamic behavior of the two-hole system of interest. The hole temperature was measured from quantum dot transport at ~ 300 mK. The noise floor of the transport measurement (~100 fA) allows us to detect currents with a total tunnel rate down to 500 kHz. A surface mount 270-nH inductor, attached to the top gate, forms a tank circuit together with a parasitic capacitance of ~0.3 pF. Tunnel events in the transistor with a tunnel rate higher than or equal to the resonance frequency of 583 MHz result in a change of the reflected amplitude and/or phase of this resonator. Furthermore, low-intensity light was directed to the silicon chip through an optical fiber to enable the use of the lower doped substrate as a back gate.

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