Amine-functionalized, fluorescent dye–coupled, 200-nm silica nanoparticles were synthesized by following the procedure described below. The materials for this procedure, fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC), (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS; 97%), (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES; 99%), an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH; 0.1 M), and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS; 98%), were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH; 30%) was purchased from Fisher Scientific. Bare, fluorescent-core, 30-nm silica nanoparticles were purchased from Creative Diagnostics and were suspended in an aqueous solution at pH 6. SAnS and C8TAB were also obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. The lipids 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), labeled with 1 mole percent (mol %) Texas Red 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, triethylammonium salt (TR-DHPE), were obtained from Avanti Polar Lipids. HCl, used for adjusting solution pH, was also obtained from Fisher Scientific. For the cholesteric liquid crystal, we used 5CB (Kingston Chemicals Limited) doped with CB15 (EMD Performance Materials and Synthon Chemicals) for a right-handed cholesteric pitch. Glass surfaces brought into contact with surfactant-functionalized nanoparticles were rinsed with 2 wt % poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) (MW = 200, 000 to 300, 000 g/mol; Sigma-Aldrich) in a solution of 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl; Fisher Scientific). This treats the glass to minimize emulsion droplets adhering to it.

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