Fabrication of PZT microactuators began with the formation of thin (500 nm) films of PZT (MEMS Solution Inc.) by sol-gel techniques on Pt/Ti on the oxidized surfaces of silicon wafers. Each microactuator had lateral dimensions of 200 μm × 140 μm in parallel-plate-type capacitor designs with top and bottom electrodes. Electron beam evaporation yielded a bilayer of Au/Cr (200 nm/10 nm) as the material for the top electrode on multilayers stacks of PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO2 (500 nm/200 nm/5 nm/600 nm). Photolithography [photoresist (PR), AZ5214E] and wet etching (gold, TFA, Transene Company Inc.; chrome, OM Group) defined an array of top electrodes (150 μm × 100 μm; with a square notch of 50 μm × 50 μm). Additional photopatterning (mask of PR hardbaked at 150°C for 5 min) and etching [HNO3 (nitric acid):BHF (buffered hydrogen fluoride):H2O (deionized water) = 1:1:20] defined regions of PZT with dimensions of 180 μm × 120 μm (with a rectangle of 50 μm × 40 μm notch; for the purpose for bottom electrode connection). A final sequence of photopatterning and etching [HCl (hydrochloric acid):HNO3:deionized water = 3:1:4 at 100°C through a hardbaked mask of AZ4620] defined bottom Pt/Ti electrodes with dimensions of 200 μm × 140 μm. Next, protecting the PZT with PR (AZ4620) allowed partial undercut removal of the underlying SiO2 sacrificial layer by immersion in BHF. Removing the PR with acetone allowed patterning of another layer of PR to form a top surface encapsulation and perimeter anchor to the underlying wafer. Immersion in dilute hydrofluoric acid (HF) (deionized water:49% HF = 3:1) completely removed the SiO2, thereby preparing the PZT microactuators for transfer printing. Figure S1 shows the schematic illustration of the process.

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