Bruker Dimension FastScan Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) was used for AFM measurements of the prepared samples with a tapping mode. The measured AFM images were further analyzed by a Nanoscope analysis software. Kratos Axis Ultra XPS system (AlKα radiation; power, ≤180 W) was used for obtaining high-resolution XPS (HR-XPS) data of the samples.

Raman measurements were carried out on a LabRAM HR Evolution Raman spectrometer (Horiba Scientific) with an excitation wavelength of 632.8 nm. A gold film with a thickness of 8 nm was used for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of SAM samples (31).

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