SAXS experiments conducted at BL05SS at SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan) and at BL-6A at the Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK (Ibaraki, Japan). The wavelength λ of the incident x-ray beam was 1 Å, and the beam size was 0.1 mm (vertical) × 0.2 mm (horizontal). The sample-to-detector distance was 4 m, and the 2D detector was PILATUS 1M (DECTRIS). The elastomer films were cut into 25 mm × 3 mm rectangular specimens, and the initial sample thickness was approximately 0.7 mm. The specimens were stretched uniaxially at a constant velocity of 50 mm/min using a LINKAM TST350 tensile stage. The initial gap between the clamps was 15 mm. 2D SAXS patterns were recorded every 2 s during uniaxial deformation until the sample fractured. The exposure time for obtaining an image was 1 s. The transmittance was calculated from the ratio between the incident beam intensity measured by an ionization chamber and the transmitted beam intensity measured by a PIN diode embedded in the beam stopper. The 2D SAXS patterns were converted to 1D intensity profiles for the direction parallel to stretching by sector-averaging over azimuthal angles of 0° ± 10°. The averaged scattering intensity normalized by the transmission and sample thickness were plotted against the amplitude of the scattering vector Q, defined asEmbedded Imagewhere θ is the scattering angle calibrated to the diffraction pattern of dried chicken collagen.

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