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Dopamine hydrochloride (DA; H8502), potassium chloride (P9333), tetramethylammonium chloride (T19526), potassium hydroxide (P1767), melanin from S. officinalis (M2659), and Sylgard 184 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co. Sodium hydroxide (39155-0350) was purchased from Junsei Chemical Co. Silicon wafers were obtained from TASCO Inc. Titanium wafers were prepared by thermal evaporation of titanium (200 nm) onto Si wafers, and Au wafers were prepared by thermal evaporation of Au (200 nm) onto Ti-deposited (20 nm) Si wafers. SS304 was purchased from Shinsan ENG Co. Ltd. TPU was obtained from SK F&C Co. Ltd. Microscope slides from Marienfeld Superior were used as glass substrates. CN membranes with a porosity of 0.45 μm (Whatman Inc.) were used. PET was purchased from Kumjeong Inc. PE and nylon fabrics were obtained from Kolon Industries Inc. PTFE membranes with a pore size of 0.2 μm were purchased from Scilab Korea Co. Ltd.

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