All human studies were approved by the Yale University Institutional Review Board. Healthy control subjects (n = 2) and two patients diagnosed with GBM were recruited to participate in the DMI study. The patients (male; 63 and 67 years old) with GBM had undergone a subtotal resection of the lesion 9 and 1 month(s) before the DMI study. One patient was undergoing treatment on an experimental protocol involving nivolumab or placebo combined with the standard-of-care chemoradiation with temozolomide, followed by adjuvant temozolomide. The other patient had only received surgery before the DMI study.

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