Animal and high-resolution NMR systems. Animal studies were performed on an 11.7 T Magnex magnet (Magnex Scientific Ltd.) interfaced to a Bruker Avance III HD spectrometer running on ParaVision 6 (Bruker Instruments). The system was equipped with 9.0-cm-diameter Magnex gradients capable of switching 440 mT/m in 180 μs and 0.5-kW RF amplifiers for 1H and 2H transmission.

RF transmission and reception for MRI and shimming during brain studies were performed with two orthogonal 20-mm surface coils driven in quadrature and tuned to the proton NMR frequency (499.8 MHz). Deuterium RF transmission and reception were achieved with a two-turn 14-mm-diameter surface coil tuned to 76.7 MHz and integrated with the proton RF coil according to the design described by Adriany and Gruetter (39).

Liver studies were performed with a 5.9-cm-diameter proton volume coil (6.1 cm in length) for MRI and shimming and a 5.0-cm-diameter deuterium volume coil (6.1 cm in length) for 2H MRS/MRSI. Both coils are constructed according to the design by Bolinger et al. (40), whereby the 2H coil is mounted within the 1H coil. The RF shield is an integral part of the 1H coil to manage capacitance at the high proton frequency (499.8 MHz). High-resolution NMR scans were performed on a 500-MHz MR spectrometer (Bruker Avance, Bruker) using 5-mm probes optimized for 1H and X-nucleus acquisition, respectively.

Human MR system. Human studies were performed on a 4 T Magnex magnet (Magnex Scientific Ltd.) interfaced to a Bruker Avance III HD spectrometer running on ParaVision 6 (Bruker Instruments). The system was equipped with 67-cm-diameter Magnex gradients capable of switching 30 mT/m in 1.1 ms. The gradient system included a full set of third-order shim coils. RF transmission was achieved using 4-kW RF amplifiers for 1H and 2H.

Brain studies were conducted with a 28.5-cm-diameter transverse electromagnetic (TEM) volume coil tuned to the proton frequency (170.5 MHz) for MRI and shimming. 2H RF reception at 26.2 MHz was achieved with a four-coil phased array that was driven as a single RF coil during RF transmission. The four 8 cm × 10 cm rectangular 2H array elements were positioned equidistantly on an 18 cm × 25 cm elliptical former that was positioned within the 1H TEM coil. A custom-built 1H-2H probe consisting of a 9-cm-diameter 2H surface coil with a pair of elliptical 14.5 cm × 11 cm 1H coils arrayed in quadrature for MRI and shimming was used for all human liver studies.

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