Different materials, such as metal ions [FeCl3, CoCl2, NiCl2, and Cr(NO3)3, 0.2 mmol ml−1], SiO2 nanoparticles, CNFs, SiC@RF nanofiber, Sc@PDA nanosheets, and GO, were added to the polymer solution. The concentration of the nanomaterials could be 1, 5, and 10 mg ml−1. All the composite woods are prepared at a freezing rate of 5°C min−1, and the cryogels were cured at 180°C.

For example, the CPF-1/GO-1 composite wood was fabricated as follows. In a typical synthesis, 2.4 g of CTS and 2.4 ml of HAc were dispersed in 120 ml of GO solution (1 mg ml−1) under stirring and ultrasound for 3 hours. Resol (4.4 g) was added to the above mixture solution under stirring to prepare the PF/GO solution. The solution was poured into a polydimethylsiloxane mold with an inner size of 5.6 cm × 5.6 cm × 4 cm, which was put on a precooled copper surface (−10°C). The solution was unidirectionally frozen at a freezing rate of 5°C min−1. The frozen monolith was freeze-dried for 72 hours and then cured at 180°C for 1 hour.

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