Preparation and modification of various nanomaterials
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Bioinspired polymeric woods
Sci Adv, Aug 10, 2018; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat7223

A Domsjö wood pulp with a solid content of ~30.3% was used as the cellulose source for the preparation of CNFs by TEMPO oxidation. Wood pulp (3.30 g; 1 g of dry cellulose) was suspended in 100 ml of water containing 0.016 g of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and 0.1 g of sodium bromide. Ten milliliters of 9% NaClO solution was adjusted to pH 10 by 0.5 M HCl, which was then added to the wood pulp suspension. The pH was maintained at 10 by adding 0.5 M NaOH until no NaOH consumption was observed. The TEMPO-oxidized pulp was then rinsed several times with DIW and suspended in DIW to form a pulp slurry. The TEMPO-oxidized pulp slurry was agitated for 5 min to obtain a transparent CNF dispersion.

The GO was prepared according to the modified Hummers’ method. Briefly, 160 ml of sulfuric acid (98%) was added gently into a beaker containing 5.0 g of graphite and 3.75 g of NaNO3 under stirring at room temperature. Subsequently, 20 g of KMnO4 was gradually added over 40 min, and stirring was kept for 20 hours. After incubation for 6 days, 500 ml of DIW was added slowly under gentle agitation followed by the addition of 30 ml of H2O2 (30%). The product was centrifugally washed and shocked for several times. Finally, the brown dispersion was further purified by dialysis to completely remove the impurities.

SiC nanofibers were modified by coating a layer of RF by the Stöber method. The Sc nanosheets were modified by coating a layer of polydopamine (PDA). In a typical synthesis, 50 mg of Sc and 50 mg of tris were successively dissolved in 25 ml of DIW, and the pH was adjusted to 8.5 by diluted HCl. Dopamine hydrochloride (50 mg) was added to the above solution. After that, the solution was stirred for 12 hours in an open beaker. The obtained black Sc nanosheet was collected from the suspension through centrifugation and washed with water three times.

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