Fabrication of artificial polymeric woods (CPF and CMF)
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Bioinspired polymeric woods
Sci Adv, Aug 10, 2018; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat7223

In a typical synthesis, 0.60 g of phenol, 2.1 ml of formaldehyde solution (37 wt %), and 15 ml of (0.1 M) NaOH aqueous solution were mixed and stirred at 70°C for 1 hour. The pH of the light yellow viscous solution was adjusted to neutral by using diluted HCl, and water was removed with rotary evaporators (50 mbar, 50°C). Absolute ethyl alcohol (60 ml) was added, and then the mixture was filtrated to separate out the NaCl, followed by evaporating the ethanol to obtain the low–molecular weight phenolic resol. The resol was stored in freezer. CTS (2 g) and HAc (2 ml) were added to 100 ml of deionized water (DIW) under stirring to prepare the transparent and viscous CTS solution. Different masses of the resol (0.11 to 0.55 g) or MF (0.6 to 1.8 g) precursor were added to 3 ml of the CTS solution, followed by vibrating intensely and ultrasounding for 5 min. The fabrication details were listed in table S1. Then, the CTS/resin solution was poured into a mold that was put on a cold copper platform and unidirectionally frozen. The initial temperature of the cold platform was set to −10°C, and the freezing rate could be set to 1, 5, and 10°C min−1. After freeze-drying in a freeze drier (Labconco-195), the polymeric cryogel was cured at different temperatures, such as 160°, 180°, and 200°C.

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