The advantage of the smooth solution in Eq. 19 is that it can be used to establish an effective creep rate as the change of deformation under constant stress p* over the change in the logarithm of timeEmbedded Image(20)

We then define the effective limiting creep rate Cl for when the crushing cycles are well established over sufficiently long times 1 ≪ αt (yet before complete annihilation of all micropores in the column, i.e., for Embedded Image)Embedded Image

Notice that while α does not affect the asymptotic creep rate in Eq. 21, it still controls the initial creep rate (when αt ~ 1), as could be seen in Fig. 3. Following our previous work (10), we found that the stiffness of puffed rice is linearly pressure-dependent with K0 = κp*, and thusEmbedded Image(21)

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