Estimates of air-sea heat flux were obtained from the European Centre For Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Atmospheric Reanalysis (ERA) Interim reanalysis twice-daily product obtained from the ECMWF data server (http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/), with spatial resolution of 0.75° (29). ERA-Interim reanalyses of surface radiative fluxes showed good comparisons with observations (30); summer shortwave and longwave flux biases were consistently less than a few percentage. Cumulative heat input to the surface ocean was estimated as the sum of surface net longwave thermal radiation, surface sensible heat flux, surface latent heat flux, and surface solar radiation to the ocean. The last term Fi was estimated from the surface downward solar irradiance Fs, the albedo of the ocean αw ≈ 0.07, and the fractional area of open water Aw as Fi = Fs(1 − αw)Aw. This neglected solar penetration through thin ice. Lateral advection of ocean heat was neglected.

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